Swine Diseases in the Rainy Season

Pneumonia to Beware of During the Rainy Season

In Thailand’s rainy season, which typically spans from mid-May to mid-October, the weather fluctuates significantly with hot, humid, and sometimes cold conditions, causing pigs to struggle to adapt. This leads to stress, weakened immune systems, and increased susceptibility to illness. Therefore, one of the diseases commonly encountered during the rainy season is Actinobacillus Pleuropneumoniae (APP) pneumonia, caused by the bacterium Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Hence, it’s important to familiarize ourselves with this disease.

Pneumonia and Pleuropneumonia, or APP, are caused by the bacterium Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.
Symptoms of APP Disease: Symptoms typically start with pigs showing signs of dyspnea, coughing, and labored breathing. In some cases, pigs may be found sitting on their hind legs, a condition known as “dog-sitting.” Severely affected pigs may exhibit high fever, depression, anorexia, and sudden death can occur within the herd. Nasal discharge may also be observed with blood-tinged froth. Chronically infected pigs may show slow growth, emaciation, affecting the overall efficiency of the farming
Prevention of APP Disease: The most effective prevention method currently is through a robust Biosecurity system, which involves screening pigs before introducing them into the herd, using antimicrobial agents at various points within the farm, segregating personnel and equipment used in farming. Additionally, reducing stress in pigs through measures such as controlling ammonia gas emissions (NH3), reducing stocking density, and ensuring proper sanitation of pens can help minimize risk factors and reduce infection rates.
Vaccination for APP Disease: Currently, there are vaccines available for APP disease specifically or combined with other respiratory diseases such as Mycoplasma and Pasteurella. These vaccines help to boost immunity within the herd, reduce symptoms, and minimize the spread of infection within the herd. This leads to improved production efficiency on the farm. Typically, these vaccines are administered to gilts before entering the herd and to piglets with two doses, spaced 1-2 weeks apart.
Treatment for APP Disease: APP disease is caused by gram-negative bacteria, making it susceptible to antimicrobial agents (ABO). Groups of drugs that can be used include Penicillins (such as Amoxicillin, Penicillin, Ampicillin), Cephalosporins (Ceftiofur), Fluoroquinolones (Enrofloxacin, Marbofloxacin), and Pleuromutilins (Tiamulin). These medications are often administered via water or mixed with food during outbreaks. However, in severely affected pigs unable to drink or eat, it’s recommended to administer injections intramuscularly (IM) into the neck muscles to ensure rapid absorption into the body.
Groups of pigs commonly affected: nursery pigs (7-8 weeks old) up to finishing pigs at the end of the selling period.

Symptoms of APP Disease


Treatment methods

Classes of antibiotics that can be used to treat APP disease include:
In cases where pigs are unable to drink water or eat, it is recommended to administer medication intramuscularly (IM). For the herd, mixing medication in feed is advised to prevent disease outbreaks.
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